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Biography of George Orwell - George Orwell, a well-known English essayist, and novelist especially for his satirical novels; Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-four, which has to do with using sarcasm or wit to point out and devalue silliness or sin. Early years George Orwell, a (Click to Continue Reading...)
Journalism - The owner and editor of The Observer, David Astor, was friends with George Orwell. Astor has an amazing ability to identify people with the gift of journalism and a knack for conjuring high-quality work from the contributors to his Newspaper. (Click to Continue Reading...)
Such, Such Were the Joys - Written between 1939 and June 1948. First published in Partisan Review, September-October 1952. I Soon after I arrived at St Cyprian’s (not immediately, but after a week or two, just when I seemed to be settling into the routine of (Click to Continue Reading...)
Reflections on Gandhi - Partisan Review, January 1949 Saints should always be judged guilty until they are proved innocent, but the tests that have to be applied to them are not, of course, the same in all cases. In Gandhi’s case the questions on (Click to Continue Reading...)
Writers and Leviathan - Politics and Letters, Summer 1948 Politics and Letters (Summer 1947) First issue of "Politics and Letters" from 1947. Orwell’s "Writers and Leviathan" appeared in the following year. The position of the writer in an age of State control is a (Click to Continue Reading...)
George Gissing - Written May-June 1948. Intended for Politics and Letters but that journal did not survive long enough to publish it. First published in London Magazine, June 1960. In the shadow of the atomic bomb it is not easy to talk confidently (Click to Continue Reading...)
Lear, Tolstoy and the Fool - Polemic, 7. March 1947. Leo Tolstoy in his office (1908) Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy in his office (1908) Tolstoy’s pamphlets are the least-known part of his work, and his attack on Shakespeare* is not even an easy document to get (Click to Continue Reading...)
A Good Word for the Vicar of Bray - Tribune, 26 April 1946 Some years ago a friend took me to the little Berkshire church of which the celebrated Vicar of Bray was once the incumbent. (Actually it is a few miles from Bray, but perhaps at that time (Click to Continue Reading...)
Riding Down from Bangor - Tribune, 22 November 1946 The reappearance of Helen’s Babies, in its day one of the most popular books in the world — within the British Empire alone it was pirated by twenty different publishing firms, the author receiving a total (Click to Continue Reading...)
How the Poor Die - Now, No. 6, [November 1946] In the year 1929 I spent several weeks in the Hôpital X, in the fifteenth Arrondissement of Paris. The clerks put me through the usual third-degree at the reception desk, and indeed I was kept (Click to Continue Reading...)
Arthur Koestler - This essay exists, unusually, as a typescript. The typewriter-face and the style of the typing (which includes page-slip and X-ing out with capital Xs) strongly suggest that Orwell was the typist. His name and address at Canonbury Square are typed (Click to Continue Reading...)
Politics vs. Literature: An Examination of Gulliver’s Travels - Polemic, 5. September-October 1946 In Gulliver’s Travels humanity is attacked, or criticized, from at least three different angles, and the implied character of Gulliver himself necessarily changes somewhat in the process. In Part I he is the typical eighteenth-century voyager, (Click to Continue Reading...)
Why I Write - Gangrel, [No. 4, Summer] 1946 From a very early age, perhaps the age of five or six, I knew that when I grew up I should be a writer. Between the ages of about seventeen and twenty-four I tried to (Click to Continue Reading...)
Confessions of a Book Reviewer - Tribune, 3 May 1946 In a cold but stuffy bed-sitting room littered with cigarette ends and half-empty cups of tea, a man in a moth-eaten dressing-gown sits at a rickety table, trying to find room for his typewriter among the (Click to Continue Reading...)
James Burnham and the Managerial Revolution - This essay was originally printed in Polemic (May 1946) under the title Second Thoughts on James Burnham, and later reprinted as a pamphlet with the present title. James Burnham’s book, The Managerial Revolution, made a considerable stir both in the (Click to Continue Reading...)
Some Thoughts on the Common Toad - Tribune, 12 April 1946 Before the swallow, before the daffodil, and not much later than the snowdrop, the common toad salutes the coming of spring after his own fashion, which is to emerge from a hole in the ground, where (Click to Continue Reading...)
Politics and the English Language - Horizon, April 1946. Recorded as completed in Orwell’s Payments Book on 11 December 1945. Most people who bother with the matter at all would admit that the English language is in a bad way, but it is generally assumed that (Click to Continue Reading...)
In Front of Your Nose - Tribune, 22 March 1946 Many recent statements in the press have declared that it is almost, if not quite, impossible for us to mine as much coal as we need for home and export purposes, because of the impossibility of (Click to Continue Reading...)
Decline of the English Murder - Tribune, 15 February 1946 It is Sunday afternoon, preferably before the war. The wife is already asleep in the armchair, and the children have been sent out for a nice long walk. You put your feet up on the sofa, (Click to Continue Reading...)
The Moon Under Water - Evening Standard, 9 February 1946 My favourite public-house, the Moon Under Water, is only two minutes from a bus stop, but it is on a side-street, and drunks and rowdies never seem to find their way there, even on Saturday (Click to Continue Reading...)
Books v. Cigarettes - Tribune, 8 February 1946 A couple of years ago a friend of mine, a newspaper editor, was fire-watching with some factory workers. They fell to talking about his newspaper, which most of them read and approved of, but when he (Click to Continue Reading...)
The Prevention of Literature - Polemic, January 1946. The Atlantic Monthly, March 1947. Recorded as completed in Orwell’s Payments Book on 12 November 1945. Index Librorum Prohibitorum (1564) The “Index Librorum Prohibitorum” was a list of publications prohibited by the Catholic Church. About a year (Click to Continue Reading...)
A Nice Cup of Tea - Saturday Essay, Evening Standard, 12 January 1946 If you look up ‘tea’ in the first cookery book that comes to hand you will probably find that it is unmentioned; or at most you will find a few lines of sketchy (Click to Continue Reading...)
Pleasure Spots - Tribune, 11 January 1946 Some months ago I cut out of a shiny magazine some paragraphs written by a female journalist and describing the pleasure resort of the future. She had recently been spending some time at Honolulu, where the (Click to Continue Reading...)
The Sporting Spirit - Tribune, 14 December 1945 Now that the brief visit of the Dynamo football team has come to an end, it is possible to say publicly what many thinking people were saying privately before the Dynamos ever arrived. That is, that (Click to Continue Reading...)